|1. Nature of the learning
||The learning of complex
subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process
of constructing meaning from information and experience.
|2. Goals of the learning
||The successful learner,
over time and with support and instructional guidance, can create
meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.
|3. Construction of knowledge
||The successful learner
can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful
|4. Strategic thinking
||The successful learner
can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies
to achieve complex learning goals.
|5. Thinking about thinking
||Higher order strategies
for selecting and monitoring mental operations facilitate creative
and critical thinking.
|6. Context of learning
||Learning is influenced
by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and
and Affective Factors
|7. Motivational and
emotional influences on learning
||What and how much is
learned is influenced by the learner's motivation. Motivation
to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual's emotional
states, beliefs, interests, and goals, and habits of thinking.
|8. Intrinsic motivation
||The learner's creativity,
higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to
motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by tasks
of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests,
and providing for personal choice and control.
|9. Effects of motivation on effort
||Acquisition of complex knowledge
and skills requires extended learner effort and guided practice.
Without learners' motivation to learn, the willingness to exert
this effort is unlikely without coercion.
|Developmental and Social
|10. Developmental influences on
||As individuals develop, there are
different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning
is most effective when differential development within and across
physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken
|11. Social influences on learning
||Learning is influenced by social
interactions, interpersonal relations, and communication with
|12. Individual differences in learning
||Learners have different strategies,
approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function
of prior experience and heredity.
|13. Learning and diversity
||Learning is most effective when
differences in learners' linguistic, cultural, and social backgrounds
are taken into account.
|14. Standards and assessment
||Setting appropriately high and challenging
standards and assessing the learner as well as the learning progress--including
diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment-are integral parts
of the learning process.
American Psychological Association (1995). Learner-centered
psychological principles: A framework for school redesign and
reform. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association.